Most usually, mechanical problems and soft-tissue lesions are the basis of low back pain. These injuries can add damage to the intervertebral discs, the concentration of nerve roots, and improper movement of the spinal joints.
Muscle Strain and Ligament Sprain
A low back sprain or strain can occur quickly or can develop slowly over time from repeated movements.
- Strains happen when a muscle is extended too far and tears, breaking the muscle itself.
- Sprains occur when over-stretching and splitting affect ligaments, which join the bones.
For practical motives, it does not matter whether the muscle or ligament is broken, as the symptoms and treatment are the same.
Common problems of sprain and strain add:
- Raising a heavy object, or twisting the spine while raising
- Immediate movements that place too much stress on the low back, such as a fall
- Poor condition over time
- Sports injuries, particularly in sports that require twisting or large forces of consequence
While sprains and strains do not sound severe and do not typically make long-lasting pain, severe pain can be very severe.
Causes of Chronic Lower Back Pain
Lumbar herniated disc. The jelly-like center of a lumbar disc can break by the hard outer layer and hurt a nearby nerve root. The herniated part of the disc is full of proteins that cause infection when they touch a nerve root, and inflammation, as well as nerve compression, cause nerve root pain. The disc wall is also well provided by nerve fibers, and a tear by the wall can create severe pain.
Degenerative disc disease. At birth, intervertebral discs are full of water and at their best. As people age over time, discs lose hydration and wear down. As the disc loses hydration, it cannot withstand forces as well and gives force to the disc wall that may develop splits and cause pain or weakening that can lead to a herniation. The disc can also give and share to stenosis.
Facet joint dysfunction. There are two facet joints after each disc at each motion part in the lumbar spine. These joints have cartilage within the bones and are surrounded by a capsular ligament, which is richly excited by nerves. These joints can be painful by themselves, or in combination with disc pain.
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The sacroiliac joint attaches the sacrum at the bottom of the spine to any side of the pelvis. It is a strong, low-motion joint that primarily absorbs shock and tension within the upper body and the lower body. The sacroiliac joint can become painful if it grows inflamed (sacroiliitis) or if there is too much or too little movement of the joint.
Spinal stenosis. This condition creates pain by narrowing the spinal canal where the nerve roots are located. The reduction can be central, formal, or both, and can be at a single level or many levels in the lower back.
Spondylolisthesis. This condition happens when one vertebra slips over the adjacent one. There are 5 types of spondylolisthesis but the most popular are secondary to a defect or crack of the pars (between the facet joints) or mechanical change of the facet joints (degenerative). The pain can be reason by change (back) or concentration of the nerves (leg).
Osteoarthritis. This condition results from wear and damage of the disc and facet joints. It causes pain, inflammation, anxiety, and stenosis to a changeable degree, and can happen at a single level or multiple levels of the lower spine. Spinal osteoarthritis is connected with aging and is slowly growing. It is also referred to as spondylosis or a degenerative common disease.
Deformity. The shape of the spine can add to scoliosis or kyphosis. The deformity may be connected with lower back pain if it leads to the breakdown of the discs, facet joints, sacroiliac joints, or stenosis.
Trauma. Acute breaks or fractures of the spine can lead to pain. Lower back pain that occurs after a trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident or a fall, should be medically assessed.
Compression fracture. A break that happens in the cylindrical vertebra, in which the bone caves in on itself, can cause sudden pain. This type of break is most common due to weak bones, such as osteoporosis, and is more general in older people.
It is essential to note that the presence of one or more of these conditions does not important mean that is the cause of pain. For instance, osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease could look on an imaging study but the frame may not report pain.
Less Common Causes of Low Back Pain
While considerably less normal, low back pain may also be created by:
Infection. Also called osteomyelitis, a spinal inflamed is rare but can cause hard pain and is life-threatening if untreated. It can be caused by surgical methods, injections, or spread by the bloodstream. Patients with a settled immune system are more sensitive to developing a disease in the spine.
Tumor. Most spinal tumors start in a different part of the body and metastasize to the spine. The most common tumors that spread to the spine start from cancer in the breast, prostate, kidney, thyroid, or lung. Any new symptoms of back pain in a frame with a known diagnosis of cancer should be created for possible spinal metastasis.
Autoimmune disease. Back pain is a potential symptom connected with autoimmune conditions, such as ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, fibromyalgia, and others.